These are the major components of a solar PV system

PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY
Photovoltaic systems use solar cells to convert sunlight into electricity.
The PV cell consists of one or two layers of a semi-conducting material, usually silicon.
When light shines on the cell it creates an electric field across the layers, causing electricity to flow.
The greater the light intensity, the greater the flow of electricity.

DC COMBINER BOXES
For larger PV systems, combiner boxes are used to consolidate the wiring from multiple solar PV module strings.
This is used to help reduce the number of terminations and to properly balance the strings before they connect into the inverter.

DC DISCONNECT SWITCH
The disconnect switch is primarily a safety device to enable the inverter assembly to be electrically isolated
in the event it requires servicing.

How a typical PV system works

The photovoltaic effect showing how cells produce electricity from the sun

DC/AC INVERTER ASSEMBLY
The inverter converts the direct current (DC) produced by the solar PV modules into alternating current (AC)
so it can be connected into the customer’s main AC power service panel. The inverter assembly may also be used as
a voltage transformer depending on the system design.

AC DISCONNECT SWITCH
A safety disconnect on the AC power side of the inverter to allow for electrical isolation.
This switch isolates the solar system from the utility grid and customer electrical system.

PERFORMANCE MONITORING SYSTEM (PMS)
The solar system PMS continuously monitors the system for faults and measures the amount of renewable
energy being generated by the solar system.